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Internet fragmentation, political structuring, and organizational concentration in transnational engineering networks

Is the internet at risk of fragmentation? Whereas the literature has examined this question with a focus on domestic policies, communication standards, and internet governance institutions, we analyze fragmentation and alternative outcomes in …

Citizen-centered or state-centered: The representational design of international parliamentary institutions

As a result of the spread of International Parliamentary Institutions (IPIs), international organisations face crucial questions of representational design. We introduce a distinction between citizen-centred and state-centred IPIs in international …

Government Euroscepticism and differentiated integration

It is common to consider mass politics and Eurosceptic politicization as ‘post-functionalist’ constraints that encourage differentiated European integration. This study argues that the relevance of Euroscepticism depends on who wins the domestic …

The rise of international parliamentary institutions: Purpose and legitimation

International parliamentary institutions (IPIs) have become an established feature of international politics. While scholars of international institutions have extensively studied why states delegate to international organizations (IOs) in general, …

Grand theories, differentiated integration

Even though differentiation has become a core feature of the EU, the grand theories have focused almost exclusively on uniform integration. In this article, we derive hypotheses about differentiated integration from liberal intergovernmentalism, …

Is parliamentary attention to the EU strongest when it is needed the most? National parliaments and the selective debate of EU policies

When do parliaments debate European Union policies? Normative arguments suggest that debates enhance government accountability. Others warn of government bias, declining debate near elections, and parties avoiding Eurosceptic publics. Our conclusions …

Opting out from European Union legislation: the differentiation of secondary law

Differentiated integration in the European Union (EU) has been primarily discussed and analysed at the treaty level, whereas lack of systematic data has hampered the examination of secondary-law or legislative differentiation. We present a new data …

Eastern enlargement and differentiated integration: towards normalization

Against the background of theoretical arguments and the historical record, enlargements of the European Union tend to increase differentiated integration. The actual development of differentiation of the 2004 and 2007 accession countries can, …

Explaining differentiation in European Union treaties

Since the early 1990s, European integration has become increasingly differentiated. Analysing the conditions under which member states make use of the opportunity to opt out of, or exclude other countries from, European integration, we argue that …

National Parliaments in the EU Dataset (NPdata)